Contents
  1. ecalprocle.tk
  2. Typewriting budget book download
  3. 3 Best Typewriters for Writers 2019 (according to a writer!)
  4. english typing budget book

Tamilnadu text book for English typing english typing budget book. February 8, | Author: Stanley Vijaya Kumar TYPEWRITING AND COMPUTER. Typing Exercise. Uploaded by ajraam. Copyright: Attribution Typing Book. Uploaded by. Navneet Kumar. english typing budget book. Uploaded by. 2 Typewriter - Key Board. 1. 3 Fingering Chart & Budget Book (Lessons I to VII). 2 . 4 Typing Practice: (a) From Sentences - Lesson VIII. 9. (b) From Paragraphs.

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Typewriting Budget Book

Contents. 1 Learning touch typing with Typewriting Trainer. 7. Introduction. . Typewriting Trainer is a program for learning to touch type. Typewriting Trainer. Typing and Duplication These items serve to reimburse the writer for his or her out-of-pocket expenses. Fringe Benefits Chapter explains fringe. Lesson 1: English Typing Basics. Instructions: The home row of the keyboard is the most important to the touch- typist. When at rest the typist's fingers are.

Gray Typewriter advantages There's no getting around one simple truth of typewriters vs computers or laptops Typewriters do far less. You usually can't save a file and switch between documents. You can't seamlessly hop between research and writing. Some models let you correct mistakes, but it's hard to make wholesale revisions without just starting over. Still, typewriters do have some advantages over laptops for writers. Keyboard feel There's nothing quite like the clickity clack of typing on a typewriter. That kind of mechanical feedback helps you feel connected to your work in a way ultra-smooth, quiet computer keyboards sometimes don't. The atmospheric and emotional effect of writing on a typewriter is hard to quantify, and hard to recreate using anything else. Except maybe a mechanical keyboard No distractions! Raise your hand if you've ever been sidetracked from your writing by clicking over to Facebook, checking your email, or scrolling through Instagram.

Now, he inoculated the same virus into another healthy person, he contacted small pox. The he proved beyond doubts that people suffering from cox pox would not contact small pox and they contacted cox pox from the cows.

In those days, people believed that one a person had small pox and recovered from it is he would never get small pox again. This was for truth in most of the cases.

In other wards, people and had believed that cox pox and small pox are two different infections while he proved that people will not be affected in case they are inoculated with the attenuated viruses of cox pox. SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:Indian scientists deserve kudos for having developed an appropriate technology in order to meet the fuel requirements of the rural folk by recycling locally available organic resources.

Rapid changes and modifications have taken place since when the floating dome model with counter weights was developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute.

This technology gained importance also on account of the ever-rising demand for petroleum products which can only be met by enhanced imports leading to a further drain on our meagre foreign exchange resources. The recycling of indigenous resources has at least met a fraction of our demands and acted as a deterrent on this count. The gas plant is a boon to the Indian farmers. The two main products of the project from which material gains accrue are enriched compost manure and Methane gas made from local resources available in the villages.

Whereas compost 19 manure helps to meet the fertilizer requirements of the farmers in a more economical and efficient manner and thereby boost agricultural production, biogas is used for cooking and lighting purposes.

It is also used in case of larger plants, as motive power for driving small engines. In fact the wide scale utilization of Gobar the most appropriate answer to solve three national inter-connected major problems with which the country is faced today food, fertilizer and fuel.

The anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes leads to the production of methane, which can be readily used as an energy sources. The mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen produced in this manner is called biogas. The complex organic molecules present in the organise wastes are first broken down to simpler compounds such as acetate, hydrogen oxygen, etc.

By the action of a number of different micro organisms. The simple compounds so produced are utilised by methogenic bacteria to produce methane. Methogenic bacteria can hydrogen and carbon dioxide for methane production. There are two major advantages of this type of energy source, which are the production of gas and the residual manure.

Though it continues to be the traditional sector, progress has become rapid on the agricultural front. A continuous flow of technology is coming out of the research stations. To get the best out of it, information about its implication on decision behaviour and policy should be made available to the farmers without time lag.

Policies and programmes in various sectors and levels and their justification depend for effectiveness on dependable knowledge. Operational research in agriculture an rural development must observe conditions which are changing rapidly due to technological break-through the data on these are not available from the existing sources.

Information has to be updated frequently foe an effective information system for agricultural development. The centre for agricultural and rural development studies of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural university established a rural observatory in support of its developmental research with the specific objectives of carrying out the survey of resources, production. Tamil Nadu was divided into eight regions based on agro-economic Conditions. To have rural and urban contents, one municipality, one town panchayat and one village panchayat were selected in each of the above 20 three regions.

These centres formed the observation centres for the study. The data were collected and village level information showed that irrespective of the size of the observation center, the distribution of population among male and female is almost; equal. The percentage of weaker section depends on the nature of the center. The prosperity of a region depends on industrial development also industrial were concentrated in the municipalities and not in rural areas.

The availability of infrastructural facilities resulted in the location of industries in urban centres. The length of road and the number of vehicles operating is directly related to the degree of urbanisation. The bullock cart formed the major mode of transport in town and village panchayats. Regulated markets, cooperative marketing societies and e ve n co mmi ssi o n ma n d i e s a r e operating with urban base only. This shows the need for dispersal of download and sale centres to help the villagers.

The detailed household survey showed that while more than forty percent of the houses were thatched ones about sixty percent were tiled houses. As the degree of urbanisation increased, the percentage of living in owned houses decreased.

SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:The major objectives of nationalisation of commercial banks as set out by the prime minister may be summarised that removing the control over commercial banks by few large industrial houses. Providing adequate credit to the hitherto neglected sectors such as agriculture, small business, small scale and professional.

To introduce professional management in commercial banking. To provide adequate training and reasonable service conditions for bank employees.

The banks have really lived up to the expectations of parliament and the prime minister The commercial banks have become powerful institutions contributing for agricultural and rural developmental and also the upliftment of weaker sections of the rural community.

Some of the significant achievements are rapid branch expansion expansion, of rural credit, strengthening of the co-operative sector and support to village and rural industries. The commercial banks in India had organised themselves along the lines and patterns of British banks. They are more comfortable with trade and large industrial houses than with the agriculture sector and small industries. A number of changes has taken place in mral areas after commencement of the planning era.

The concept of rural developmental has nether been concise consistent. These three dominant personalities, who played a significant role in the economic development of the country, have left their imprints.

ecalprocle.tk

Tumultuous and far reaching changes have taken place after the nationalisation of commercial banks. Even before , agriculture and allied activities were experiencing rapid growth under suggested five year plans. The national credit council pointed out a large credit gap in the rural economy.

It has suggested measures to improve and monitor the flow of credit to the rural sector and also recommended a multi agency approach instead of depending on the co-operativecredit societies alone. While the banks prior to nationalisation were reluctant to enter rural areas and lend for rural acitvities in support of various governmental programmes.

Even during the British rule, the Government had recognised the importance of agriculture and developed the co-operative organisations to take care of agricultural credit. At that point of time and perhaps up to ,rural development was seen merely as agricultural development. According to the Hindu mythology, when Lord Sive shook a hand drem, the world beatits first rhythm. And as he moved his body in tune with its beat, the universe came into being. The dancing Siva is known as Nataraja and all classical dancers invoke Nataraja as the symbol of cosmic energy.

Indian dance essentially tells a story poetically, with movements of hand mudras and foot and gesture of eye and row abhinaya, all this is supplemented and complemented by a set pattern of music.

A characteristic feature of the classical dance is the intricate footwork, tala which is emphasized by the jingling of ankle-bells by the dancer as well as the rhythm maintained by the drummer. There are four main schools of Indian traditional dance. By far the oldest of the classical styles is Bharata Natyam, which follows the ancient treatises more closely than any other style.

Typewriting budget book download

With its roots in Tamilnadu, this dance, which has retained its purest form is usually performed solo and comprises movements of pure rhythm, reamatic rendering of a story or depiction of a mood Bharata Natyam 22 was once part of therites of worship in temples and was performed by dancing girls attached to temple. Kathakali frkom kerela is a spectacular and powerful dancedrama, in which the artists don an elaborate make-up and enact tales from the epics.

Kathak began as a religious performance and under Mughal lpatronage in the 16th and 17th centuries evolved as a court-dance. The Manipuri style of Manipur in eastern India, revolves round the pranks of Krishna when he was young. For variety, colour and drichness of emotion, the Inian dance forms have pdractically no parallel in any other part of the world. In fact, Indian classical dances have traveled oout of the country to influehelp the art forms of neighbouring Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and even Japan and America.

India has also a variety of Tribal and Folk dances. To the tribals and village folk, dance seems to be the most natural medium of expressio n. Occasions like marriages.

Births, festivals, fairs, harvests and hunts are all marked by dancing. SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:During the period , many path breaking discoveries were made which not only ushered in revolutions in several disciplines of science but also changed our very understanding of some of the prevailing concepts in science. The discovery of electron by Joseph John Thomson in was one such discovery.

In fact, the discovery of electron is one of the greatest discoveries of modern physics. The electron was the first of fundamental constituents of all matter to be proposed and in the last hundred years.

It has withstood all the tests of elementarily. The discovery of electron has not only revolutionized scientific thought but also our ways of life. Once electron was proposed as a fundamental constituent of matter, the scientists started building models of atomic structure. Atoms in their normal states are not electrically charged.

So, as the electrons are negatively charged, it became obvious that the atoms also dairy a charge of positive electricity to counterbalance the negative charge. Gradually, the physicists built up an idea how these charges were arranged in an atom. Among these models, the Rutherford model had the most lasting influence.

Rutherford discovered that the atom consisted of a heavy positively 23 charged core surrounded by electrons. The existence of proton was recognized in In , neutron was discovered by James Chadwick and the number of elementary particles rose to three i.

However, with the advent of particle accelerators, hundreds of so called elementary particles were discussed. To scientists, it was a real shock. They were not prepared to face so many elementary particles.

From the very beginning of human civilization, the idea of fewer basic constituents of nature has fascinated man. To over come this complexity, a new model viz. According to this model, all the particles experiencing strong interactions are made of quarks was experimentally supported in Today the elementary particles and interaction between them are described the Standard Model.

According to this model, elementary particles are classified as leptons i. Such carelessness results in decreased efficiency too. You are what you eat. Hence, eating good means on time is very important.

Scientific meal planning is knot too difficult.

It may appear complicated to a beginner when he or she is told that a complete and balanced diet is essential to meet the needs of the individual. The needs of a person depend on his or her age, sex, body size type, temperament, nature of work, the climate and the it ate of health of his or her mind and body. The term daily diet means all the food a person eaters during the day. Die ; may refer to either food ordinarily eaten or that selected with reference to a particular state of health.

A few simple rules combine all the requirements, and a little practice makes direct meal planning second nature.

Nutritionists define good meals as those which supply nutrition to meet body needs, protect the body against disease and are enjoyable to eat. With the knowledge of nutrition, one can easily choose food to fulfill the first two requirements; yet how much one enjoys one's food depends on one's taste and attitude in eating. You can train yourself to enjoy all essential foods. It is not clearly understood why 24 some children seem to dislike certain foods. But experience shows that a persistent effort I overcoming most dislikes is rewarding.

Researchers have discovered that the custom of three meals a day is based on convenience and not on biological needs. Tests show that blood sugar concentration and muscular efficiency are lowest before breakfast and remain at this level until a meal is taken. After eating, blood sugar rises sharply and efficiency increases but the two fall again to a low level within two-and-a-half to four hours unless another meal is taken.

From these facts, it appears that a high level of energy can be maintained by eating every two and a half to three h o u r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y. Experiments on factory workers have proved this to be true. Today, many factories, offices and schools have incorporated in their schedules a nutrition or snack period midforenoon and mid-afternoon, The bed time snack is a matter of individual preference.

Top avoid interfering with sleep, it should either be omitted or be very light and contain light food such as milk or fruit. An over weight person and the elderly should avoid food before retiring. It is unfortunate that breakfast is so often slight.

People who stay in bed. Late, rush with dressing and eat on the run. His father was a member of the nobility. He lost his mother a year after his birth. He was raised by his maternal grandmother and by a nurse to whom he was devoted. In , he entered a Jesuit College that was established for the education of the young nobility and completed in the eight-year course of studies. His studies left him with a felling of dissatisfaction at the extent of his own ignorance. But he left behind a mark of extreme brilliance.

He spent the period from to , divided between participation in many campaigns of the Thirty Years War in D8tch. He never married. He was doing military service without salary, Descartes spent most of his time in the study of mathematics. By the age of 22, he began to develop his analytical geometry under the title 'La Geometric' by which the mathematicians still affectionately refer to it.

It set forth the idea that a pair of numbers can determine a apposition on a surface; one number x as a distance measured horizontally, the other y as a distance measured In the concept of covertically.

The book contained three minor appendices on the behaviour of lenses meteors and geometry. A page foot note outlined analytical geometry, which he did it is an endless wavy line, the exact graphic equivalent of the pulsating ebb and flow of electric current in a power cable, which has practical application in electrical engineering.

Descartes showed, for instance, that all quadratic equations, when graphed as connected points, become straight lines, circles, ellipses, parabolas or hyperbolas. Going beyond the quadratic, he established that each class of equations of higher degree brings into being a whole new tribe figure of eight, hearts, hummocks and petal shapes. He started, in , work on his magnum opus Discourse on the method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, which stamped him immediately as one of the great thinkers of his age.

He postulated his notion of the unity of all science which was a revolutionary concept which contradicted the notion of Aristotle. He or she benefits by its applications, driving a motor car or omnibus instead of a horse-drawn vehicle, being treated for disease by a doctor or surgeon rather than a priest or a witch, and being killed with an automatic pistol or shell in place of a dagger or a battle-awe. It also affects his or her opinion. Almost everyone believes that the earth is round and the heavens nearly empty instead of solid.

And we are beginning to believe in our animal ancestry and the possibility of vast improvements in human nature by biological methods. But science can do something far bigger for the human mind than the substitution of one set of beliefs for another, of inculcation of skepticism regarding accepted opinions. It was gradually spread among humanity as a whole the point of view that prevails among research workers and has enabled a few thousand men and a few dozen women to create the science on which modern civilization rests.

For if we are to control our own and one another's actions as we are learning to control nature, the scientific point of view must come out of the laboratory and be applied to the events of daily life. It is foolish to think that the outlook which has already revolutionized industry, agriculture, war and medicine will prove useless when applied to the family, the nation or the human race. Unfortunately, the 26 growing realization of this fact is opening the door to innumerable false prophets who are advertising their own pet theories in sociology as scientific Science is continually telling us through their mouths that we are doomed unless we give up smocking, adopt or abolish birth control and so forth.

Now it is not my object to support any scientific theory, but merely the scientific standpoint. What are the characteristics of that standpoint? In the first place, it attempts to be truthful and therefore impartial. And it carries impartiality a great deal further than does the legal point of view. A good scientist will be impartial between Mr.

Smith a tapeworm and the solar system. He will leave behind him his natural revulsion of the tapeworm, which would lead him to throw it away instead of studying it as carefully as a statue or a symphony and his awe for the solar system, which led his predecessors either to worship its constituents or at least to regard them as inscrutable servants of the Almighty, to exalted for human comprehension.

Such an attitude leads the scientist to a curious mixture of pride and humility. The solar system turns out to be a group of bodies rather small in comparison with many of their neighbors and executing the movements according to simple and easily intelligible laws.

As the chief focus of the nervous system the brain, with its vast number of cells closely inter-linked, is related to all the tissues and organs of the body by means of nerves. The reception by the brain cells of messages from the various sense organs arouses what is called sensation and consciousness, which from a physiological point of view, is simply awareness of sensation. All mind functioning is therefore primarily dependent on efficient sense organs and healthy nerves to transmit impulses when these sense organs are stimulated.

In turn, consciousness depends upon the integrity of the brain cells and should these cells be injured, as in concussion from a blow or damaged by the poisons of alcohol or disease, then consciousness may be reduced or completely suspended. All forms of mental activity use up energy in then ever cells and this need is met with by an increased flow of blood containing nutriment to the brain triples between birth and adulthood- reaching a final weight of about 1 kilogram fro men and 1.

Since then, it has been racing through the cosmos largely keeping itself t itself. Over billions of years, it too has cooled with the expanding universe and what must originally have been energetic ultraviolet rays now reach us as feeble microwaves at just a few degrees above absolute zero.

Known as the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation or CMB this radiation hold important clues about the early universe, Tiny differences in density of the baby universe caused tiny differences in the temperature of the escaping radiation. These density fluctuations have grown into the clusters of galaxies we see to day Because of the relative simplicity of the early universe, physicists believe they have a good understanding of its mechanisms.

Armed with reliable measurements of the CMB they would be able to wind back the clock and calculate the state of the universe at decoupling and hence work out its density and curvature. Researchers finally got the date they needed just few months ago when an experiment known as Boomerang.

This is because viruses cause diseases not only in human beings but also in animals and plants. Virus is a Latin word meaning slimy liquid or poison.

The list of diseases caused by viruses is a long one. Some of the other diseases caused by viruses in human beings are infantile paralysis, dengue, hepatitis B, influenza, common cold herpes yellow fever and small pox. Viruses are parasites. They need a living cell host for reproduction.

Some viruses in fact bacteria only and they are known as bacteria-eaters. The biological nature of virus was first indicated by a Russian scientist Dimitry. Ivanovsky and a Dutch scientist Martinus W.

Beijedrinck in the last decade of the nineteenth century. The size and shape of virus are determined by the amount and arrangement of nucleic acids and proteins. They vary in diameter from 20 nanometres to nanometres 15 one nanometer is one billionth of a metre. Viruses are too small to be seen with naked eyes. With a few exceptions they cannot be seen even with ordinary or optical microscope. The vaccinia virus can be visualized under a powerful optical microscope.

Viruses come in various shapesrods, threads, spheroids, polyhedrons and tadpole-like structure. Some viruses come in combined shapes, for example, a virus may have a polyhedral head attached to a rod-like tail.

The infective part of a virus, when it is outside the host ell is called the virion. It contains atleast one protein synthesized by a specific gene of the nucleic acid of the virus. All viruses have a protein coat called a capsid around the nucleic acid. Some virus like disease causing organisms which have only nucleic acid and no structural proteins are known as viriods. It protects the nucleic acid of the virus from digestion by enzymes called necklaces. It help the virion to penetrate through the cell surface membrane or in some cases to inject the infectious nucleic acid into the interior of the host cell.

It provided sites on its surface which recognize the receptors on the surface of the host cells for attaching the iron. Virus is host specific, that is. A virus may not harm one type of host but can severely damage another.

Between the two, labour is supreme, for it is he who makes conscious and deliberate efforts to unravel the laws and mysteries of land and makes use of them for his own development. Indeed, his own development is the beall and end-all of his entire conscious effort. Looked at in this light, human development has been the objective of human Endeavour ever since Adam and Eve first appeared on this earth. Yes in the beginning, the thrust of human Endeavour was in the direction of spiritual development, but now it is in the direction of material development.

In the earlier years, it was primarily the responsibility of an individual to develop himself, but now it has become the responsibility of the State to arrange for all round development of human beings.

This has put human beings in new light. The shift in emphasis from individual effort and spiritual development to State planning and material development has turned human into a factor of production an economic. Resource to be brought up developed and used for material development of the country as a whole.

Population growth at an alarming rate comes in the way of these social objectives in a big way.

3 Best Typewriters for Writers 2019 (according to a writer!)

Rapid growth of population, therefore, has rightly been cause of concern in jour country since the early fifty's. In early fiftys, socio-economic implications of population growth were a matter of concern largely in the context of the argument that rapid population growth is an obstacle to development. But now it is increasingly recognized that the relationship between population growth and development is not that simple it is rather much more complex. In , it has been forcefully argued and accepted that rapid population growth itself is in many ways the result of a lack of development.

In course of time many other dimensions have been added to this relationship which was once viewed to be unidirectional. After the ICPD Conference population issue is placed in a much large context of sustainable development.

Over the years, the concept of development little has undergone a change. In the context of peoplecentered development, many dimensions like gender equity, women's empowerment, environmental degradation, uplift of the weaker sections and human resource development have assumed considerable significance.

From this point of view, it is essential to look in to the implications of population. Every government should have a good administrative system or machinery to levy and collect taxes, maintain law and order, to administer justice and to implement v a r i o u s s c h e m e s , f o r e ff e c t i v e administrative machinery was felt, in the ancient days also. There were excellent administrative set up even at the village level, in India in the ancient days. Similarly the Romans gad ab excellent administrative set up, similarly also the British, french and the Greeks.

However the nature of recruitment and appointment to the various posts, were more on hereditary ;basis than on any other consideration, in those days The duties of the Governments in the ancient days were limited to the extent of providing security to the people, and defending the country from foreign invasion.

A small and selected administrative machinery was sufficient in those days but the science and technology have changed the entire set up of the society. The provisions of hospitals, educational institution, accommodation, highways and transport etc. Have became the primary duty of any modern government. As a result, the administrative machinery has not only to be geared up to meet the demand but also transformed to suit the modern conditions.

In the present days. The qualifications have been prescribed for every one of the posts each department along with the procedure for recruitment and appointment to those posts. The service commissions recruiting boards have been constituted in all the countries, to recruit the persons, for the various posts in the different departments.

They have been accorded status free from governmental interference and security of tenure to the members forming the board with a view to ensure that the recruitment is made impartially without fear or favour.

These bodies conduct examinations, interviews and select the suitable candidates to the various posts grades. The modern administrative system has become much more important in these days of the decorative governments. The representatives elected by the people need not necessarily have neither administrative experience nor talent.

The representative so elected , therefore have to depend mainly on the administrative machinery to discharge their duties, in their elected offices as ministers. He became world-famous through his vaccination for Small Pox. His father was a clergy. Janner was sent to a local school for elementary education when he showed keener interest in the study of medicine. Studying for medicine in those days was an ordeal: one had to get one-self trained under an eminent surgeon.

Later, he had to study in a medical college for a period of 2 years. In a small village called Sedbury, near Bristol, Janner underwent training in surgery under an able surgeon.

At the age of 21, he went to St. George hospital in London, where he had to study further and work. After his graduation in medicine, Janner went back to his native home to practice medicine.

During his training period a milkmaid approached her trainee surgeon to get herself treated for Cowpox. Cow Pox was a mild sickness common to prevail among mosfc of the milk-vendors.

However Janner momentously thought of conducting investigations on Cow Pox. By this time, his training was getting over and Janner could take up the issue more vigorously. After many years of practice in his native home and occasional investigation into the cow pox that had afflicted his milkmaid.

Janner trailed to achieve any type of success. He published his work in after having studied 27 cases. He noticed that in the people who had cow pox they did not contact small pox, after they were inoculated the fluids of cox pox. This led him to undertake a high risk of inoculating an eight year old Jimmy Phipps with cox pox virus which he extracted from the fingers of the milkmaid who had cow pox.

The boy contacted cox pox. After seven weeks, he inoculated small pox virus into the same boy, which he extracted from the patient of small pox. But the boy did not now contact small pox. Now, he inoculated the same virus into another healthy person, he contacted small pox. The he proved beyond doubts that people suffering from cox pox would not contact small pox and they contacted cox pox from the cows. In those days, people believed that one a person had small pox and recovered from it is he would never get small pox again.

This was for truth in most of the cases.

Other books: BALBHARTI TEXT BOOK

In other wards, people and had believed that cox pox and small pox are two different infections while he proved that people will not be affected in case they are inoculated with the attenuated viruses of cox pox. SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:Indian scientists deserve kudos for having developed an appropriate technology in order to meet the fuel requirements of the rural folk by recycling locally available organic resources.

Rapid changes and modifications have taken place since when the floating dome model with counter weights was developed by the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. This technology gained importance also on account of the ever-rising demand for petroleum products which can only be met by enhanced imports leading to a further drain on our meagre foreign exchange resources. The recycling of indigenous resources has at least met a fraction of our demands and acted as a deterrent on this count.

The gas plant is a boon to the Indian farmers. The two main products of the project from which material gains accrue are enriched compost manure and Methane gas made from local resources available in the villages.

Whereas compost 19 manure helps to meet the fertilizer requirements of the farmers in a more economical and efficient manner and thereby boost agricultural production, biogas is used for cooking and lighting purposes.

It is also used in case of larger plants, as motive power for driving small engines. In fact the wide scale utilization of Gobar the most appropriate answer to solve three national inter-connected major problems with which the country is faced today food, fertilizer and fuel.

The anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes leads to the production of methane, which can be readily used as an energy sources. The mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen produced in this manner is called biogas. The complex organic molecules present in the organise wastes are first broken down to simpler compounds such as acetate, hydrogen oxygen, etc.

By the action of a number of different micro organisms. The simple compounds so produced are utilised by methogenic bacteria to produce methane. Methogenic bacteria can hydrogen and carbon dioxide for methane production. There are two major advantages of this type of energy source, which are the production of gas and the residual manure. Though it continues to be the traditional sector, progress has become rapid on the agricultural front. A continuous flow of technology is coming out of the research stations.

To get the best out of it, information about its implication on decision behaviour and policy should be made available to the farmers without time lag. Policies and programmes in various sectors and levels and their justification depend for effectiveness on dependable knowledge.

Operational research in agriculture an rural development must observe conditions which are changing rapidly due to technological break-through the data on these are not available from the existing sources. Information has to be updated frequently foe an effective information system for agricultural development.

The centre for agricultural and rural development studies of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural university established a rural observatory in support of its developmental research with the specific objectives of carrying out the survey of resources, production. Tamil Nadu was divided into eight regions based on agro-economic Conditions. To have rural and urban contents, one municipality, one town panchayat and one village panchayat were selected in each of the above 20 three regions.

These centres formed the observation centres for the study. The data were collected and village level information showed that irrespective of the size of the observation center, the distribution of population among male and female is almost; equal.

The percentage of weaker section depends on the nature of the center. The prosperity of a region depends on industrial development also industrial were concentrated in the municipalities and not in rural areas.

The availability of infrastructural facilities resulted in the location of industries in urban centres. The length of road and the number of vehicles operating is directly related to the degree of urbanisation. The bullock cart formed the major mode of transport in town and village panchayats.

Regulated markets, cooperative marketing societies and e ve n co mmi ssi o n ma n d i e s a r e operating with urban base only. This shows the need for dispersal of download and sale centres to help the villagers.

The detailed household survey showed that while more than forty percent of the houses were thatched ones about sixty percent were tiled houses. As the degree of urbanisation increased, the percentage of living in owned houses decreased. SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:The major objectives of nationalisation of commercial banks as set out by the prime minister may be summarised that removing the control over commercial banks by few large industrial houses.

Providing adequate credit to the hitherto neglected sectors such as agriculture, small business, small scale and professional. To introduce professional management in commercial banking.

To provide adequate training and reasonable service conditions for bank employees. The banks have really lived up to the expectations of parliament and the prime minister The commercial banks have become powerful institutions contributing for agricultural and rural developmental and also the upliftment of weaker sections of the rural community.

Some of the significant achievements are rapid branch expansion expansion, of rural credit, strengthening of the co-operative sector and support to village and rural industries. The commercial banks in India had organised themselves along the lines and patterns of British banks. They are more comfortable with trade and large industrial houses than with the agriculture sector and small industries.

A number of changes has taken place in mral areas after commencement of the planning era. The concept of rural developmental has nether been concise consistent. These three dominant personalities, who played a significant role in the economic development of the country, have left their imprints.

Tumultuous and far reaching changes have taken place after the nationalisation of commercial banks. Even before , agriculture and allied activities were experiencing rapid growth under suggested five year plans.

The national credit council pointed out a large credit gap in the rural economy. It has suggested measures to improve and monitor the flow of credit to the rural sector and also recommended a multi agency approach instead of depending on the co-operativecredit societies alone. While the banks prior to nationalisation were reluctant to enter rural areas and lend for rural acitvities in support of various governmental programmes.

Even during the British rule, the Government had recognised the importance of agriculture and developed the co-operative organisations to take care of agricultural credit. At that point of time and perhaps up to ,rural development was seen merely as agricultural development. According to the Hindu mythology, when Lord Sive shook a hand drem, the world beatits first rhythm. And as he moved his body in tune with its beat, the universe came into being.

The dancing Siva is known as Nataraja and all classical dancers invoke Nataraja as the symbol of cosmic energy. Indian dance essentially tells a story poetically, with movements of hand mudras and foot and gesture of eye and row abhinaya, all this is supplemented and complemented by a set pattern of music.

A characteristic feature of the classical dance is the intricate footwork, tala which is emphasized by the jingling of ankle-bells by the dancer as well as the rhythm maintained by the drummer. There are four main schools of Indian traditional dance.

By far the oldest of the classical styles is Bharata Natyam, which follows the ancient treatises more closely than any other style. With its roots in Tamilnadu, this dance, which has retained its purest form is usually performed solo and comprises movements of pure rhythm, reamatic rendering of a story or depiction of a mood Bharata Natyam 22 was once part of therites of worship in temples and was performed by dancing girls attached to temple.

Kathakali frkom kerela is a spectacular and powerful dancedrama, in which the artists don an elaborate make-up and enact tales from the epics. Kathak began as a religious performance and under Mughal lpatronage in the 16th and 17th centuries evolved as a court-dance. The Manipuri style of Manipur in eastern India, revolves round the pranks of Krishna when he was young. For variety, colour and drichness of emotion, the Inian dance forms have pdractically no parallel in any other part of the world.

In fact, Indian classical dances have traveled oout of the country to influehelp the art forms of neighbouring Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand and even Japan and America. India has also a variety of Tribal and Folk dances. To the tribals and village folk, dance seems to be the most natural medium of expressio n. Occasions like marriages. Births, festivals, fairs, harvests and hunts are all marked by dancing.

SPEED PRACTICE Type the following in double line spacing with a margin of ten degrees:During the period , many path breaking discoveries were made which not only ushered in revolutions in several disciplines of science but also changed our very understanding of some of the prevailing concepts in science. The discovery of electron by Joseph John Thomson in was one such discovery. In fact, the discovery of electron is one of the greatest discoveries of modern physics.

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The electron was the first of fundamental constituents of all matter to be proposed and in the last hundred years. It has withstood all the tests of elementarily. The discovery of electron has not only revolutionized scientific thought but also our ways of life.

Once electron was proposed as a fundamental constituent of matter, the scientists started building models of atomic structure. Atoms in their normal states are not electrically charged.

So, as the electrons are negatively charged, it became obvious that the atoms also dairy a charge of positive electricity to counterbalance the negative charge. Gradually, the physicists built up an idea how these charges were arranged in an atom. Among these models, the Rutherford model had the most lasting influence. Rutherford discovered that the atom consisted of a heavy positively 23 charged core surrounded by electrons.

The existence of proton was recognized in In , neutron was discovered by James Chadwick and the number of elementary particles rose to three i. However, with the advent of particle accelerators, hundreds of so called elementary particles were discussed. To scientists, it was a real shock. They were not prepared to face so many elementary particles.

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